Dermatomyositis (DM) and polymyositis (PM) are heterogeneous complex autoimmune diseases involving muscle damage. Patients with DM and PM display a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations and serological biomarkers, which may mislead and delay the proper diagnosis. Therefore, specific biomarkers or indicators for diagnosing DM and PM and monitoring disease activity are essential. Significant progress has been made through identifying novel serological biomarkers for DM and PM in recent years. Our aim is to focus on novel biomarkers for diagnosing and monitoring disease activity in DM and PM to highlight their predictive value and applicability in clinical practice.
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